security architecture principles

Organization processes en policies are of great importance. RSI Security is an Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV) and Qualified Security Assessor (QSA). Procedures must be implemented to ensure system hard drives, volatile memory, and other media are purged to an acceptable level and do not retain residual information. This is the rationale behind Unix “sudo” and Windows User Account Control, both of which allow a user to apply administrative rights temporarily to perform a privileged task.   Implications: Security is designed in as an integrated part of the system architecture, not added as an afterthought. SME (Subject Matter Experts) must be available for doing reviews. Conduct a risk review with security professionals and threat model the application to identify key risks and to improve product and processes under development. As with many architectural decisions, the principles, which do not necessarily guarantee security, at times may exist in opposition to each other, so appropriate tradeoffs must be made. To find out more about what your company should be doing to prevent a breach and stay compliant with laws and regulations, contact RSI Security for a FREE consultation today.   Statement: Design security to allow for regular adoption of new technology, including a secure and logical technology upgrade process. Rationale: Authentication is the process where a system establishes the validity of a transmission, message, or a means of verifying the eligibility of an individual, process, or machine to carry out a desired action, thereby ensuring that security is not compromised by an untrusted source. The IDS monitors network traffic and can be used to determine a baseline that is then compared against data flows. Reserve time to improve architectures and designs or to improve code. Rationale: In general, IT security measures are tailored according to an organization’s unique needs. Rationale: All external or less trusted interfaces of the service should be identified and have appropriate protections to defend against attacks through them. For example, if a user usually requests access to a high value service for the first time or outside of normal working hours your policy engine could ask for an additional factor of authentication. Security is a system requirement just like performance, capability, cost, etc.Therefore, it may be necessary to trade offcertain security requirements to gain others. To properly secure a network and its assets, a layered approach is preferred. It requires human analysis to determine what happened, and it does not monitor system console activity. : When designers don’t “remember the user” in their software design, inadvertent disclosures by the user may take  place. If this principle is not implemented, the security of cloud services and the data held within them can be undermined by poor use of the service by consumers. Rationale: The risk of unauthorized modification or destruction of data, disclosure of information, and denial of access to data while in transit should be considered along with the risks associated with data that is in storage or being processed. It all depends on where the assets are and the degree to which they require communication with specified users. In addition to the traditional aspects of data classification, this includes, but is not limited to, protection of per-decisional, sensitive, source selection-sensitive, and proprietary information. User devices within a traditional walled garden network architecture use a VPN to send all traffic through a controlled path, which enables traffic to be inspected. Should a device on the DMZ be compromised, that is as far as the intruder will get. Good understanding of the threat environment, evaluation of requirement sets, hardware and software engineering disciplines, and product and system evaluations are primary measures used to achieve assurance. If a threat actor is able to gain access through the less secure environment of a user’s home or even the user’s work environment, they can use the captured credentials to connect to critical assets. Rationale: Consumer data, and the assets storing or processing it, should be protected against physical tampering, loss, damage or seizure. In most cases, though, the return value of a function should not be ignored, especially if error return values must be propagated up the function call chain. While the network should be treated as hostile and untrusted, maintaining cyber hygiene and good standards on the network is still important ensuring they are performant and available. Risks must identified so we are aware of what risks can occur, what existing controls are in place, the consequence and likelihood of the risk occurring, and a determination is made about how to treat those risks. Implications: This principle has impact on the system, software components, but also on procedures used. Rationale: Information systems should be resistant to attack, should limit damage, and should recover rapidly when attacks do occur. Services should be configured to use their native security functions as per documentation and to satisfy the principles of zero trust. (design review). All audit records should have a correct time stamp. Rationale: It is unwise to assume that developers know how to develop secure software. Some data … Statement: Protect information while being processed, in transit, and in storage. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Default system configuration at start-up is secure. Implications: Make sure all data received from an untrusted client are properly validated before processing. Implications: If this principle is not implemented, then the integrity or confidentiality of the data may be compromised whilst in transit. This should happen at both a governance and technical level. Is the device in the expected state? Defense-in-depth is a military strategy designed to impede the progress of attackers rather than stop them entirely, thus buying the defensive position time to formulate a plan of attack. The IPS stores data about the typical operation of a network or a control system and compares traffic to that data. Implications: Sandbox model /Jericho model needed. Systems that implement attestation to gain confidence in initial device state, may include subsequent cryptographic checks of launched applications and services to extend the breadth of health measurements regarded as strong signals. IT security measurements are a part of the total security system. Many of the terms found in cybersecurity come from real-world applications, such as military strategies that have been tried and tested over time. Rationale: Information technology exists in physical and logical locations, and boundaries exist between these locations. This means more components, more processes and more security measurements involved. Consider using proven generic OSS security services when applicable. The rationale for the caution against conditional compilation is equally important. Designers sometimes fail to account for the fact that authenticated and properly authorized users can also be attackers! Standard libraries famously violate this rule with potentially grave consequences. This may increase management overhead and cause usability issues, so ensure you have the resource to take this on. The security policy begins with the organization’s basic commitment to information security formulated as a general policy statement. However, expectations of privacy vary and can be violated by some security measures. Implications: Assess and mitigate risks to the security of users and their data. Implications: Organize or make use of a structured review process to benefit from review. Secure defaults must be regularly tested. Create a security architecture or design and document the different layers of protection. The health of services should also be considered, not only when end-user devices are accessing services but also when services are talking to other services. The power of a zero trust architecture comes from the access policies you define. Going further, determining the underlaying state of a devices’ firmware, BIOS, and operating system kernel are strong signals which contributes to determining its overall health. Loading these signatures into the IDS makes it easy to quickly detect and report anomalous behavior. Using video cameras to survey the site and the entrance can allow remote observation of card reader activity. Implications: Failing to address this design principle can lead to a various problems, e.g. Implications: User awareness campaigns should be included in the security processes on regular basis. A typical firewall can be placed outside the DMZ with public and private interfaces that connect to the insecure devices in the DMZ. Systems or sub-systems outside the bounds of a receiving component must never be trusted implicitly. Vulnerabilities and attacks in most cases can be ascribed to the inadequate application of some principle. These services may not be designed for this situation and therefore will be unable to defend themselves against attack. These controls are implemented on top of the existing network architecture and can be modified or added to meet various compliance framework requirements. These requirements are often dictated by the law, which means there are penalties for negligence and deficiencies that can lead to data breaches. Statement: Minimize the system elements to be trusted.   Statement: Computer Security Supports the Mission of the Organization. Take notice of legal boundaries possible and lawsuits possible (for liability)  if no adequate security measurements are taken. This is perhaps most often applied in the administration of the system.   Statement: Ensure proper security in the shutdown or disposal of a system. Statement: Ensure that developers are trained in how to develop secure software. All policies and procedures should reflect the principles of least privilege and need to know access.   Statement: Sub-systems must be partitioned logically and isolated using physical devices and/or security controls. Access to critical information systems must be controlled at all times. The boundary of an information domain represents the security perimeter for that domain. The most well known and used is a signature-based IDS. Records of these packets and their states are kept in a table, and once communication is established, there is no more need for the processor to expend itself comparing packets to the table. This principle is particularly important if transitioning to a zero trust architecture for an established system, with many pre-existing services. Through the selection and application of appropriate safeguards, security helps the organization’s mission by protecting its physical and financial resources, reputation, legal position, employees, and other tangible and intangible assets. Is virtualisation-based security or system integrity protection enabled? For example, the use of a packet-filtering router in conjunction with an application gateway and an intrusion detection system combine to increase the work-factor an attacker must expend to successfully attack the system. Physical isolation may include ensuring that no physical connection exists between an organization’s public access information resources and an organization’s critical information. Define your policies based on the value of the data to be accessed or action taken. The way each user interacts with software is dictated not only by the design and implementation decisions of its creators but also by the cognitive abilities and cultural background of its users. Implications: Security design principles and requirements must be implemented at first release. As always in security architecture, a risk managed approach is required. Statement: HTTP header information is not relied on to make security decisions. Statement: Computer Security Should Be Cost-Effective. In practice an open interface in OSS software (good documented) can be a good alternative to an open standard that lacks solid reference implementations and gives room to different ways of implementing external behaviour. The DMZ is a dead end in an attack because of its one-way communication configuration toward the Internet. Unique identities are a required element in order to be able to: Maintain accountability and traceability of a user or process Assign specific rights to an individual user or process Provide for non-repudiation Enforce access control decisions Establish the identity of a peer in a secure communications path Prevent unauthorized users from masquerading as an authorized user. To determine the criticality of assets it is important to know what other processes or assets are dependent on that asset and what compensating controls are available if there is no technical solution for its protection. Rather, success depends on the consistency across decisions, initiatives, and capabilities. Implications: It’s preferable to have a single method, component, or system responsible for authenticating users. Know your architecture including users, devices, and services ¶. We recommend that you use a single policy engine and apply the full set of features it offers. Using a device management service, apply these policies to devices and enforce them, then continuously check that devices are compliant. So in case of error security should not be compromised. Statement: Computer Security Responsibilities and Accountability Should Be Made Explicit. Therefore, system engineers, architects, and IT specialists should implement security measures to preserve, as needed, the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of data, including application software, while the information is being processed, in transit, and in storage. Rationale: For security capabilities to be effective security program designers should make every effort to incorporate interoperability and portability into all security measures, including hardware and software, and implementation practices. Thus it cannot even “see” the server. It is called stateful because it takes the context of the communications between clients and servers or services into account in deciding whether to permit communication to an asset, as well as by the rules that have been defined by the administrator. The technique is less evident when applied to email, which must pass through separately applied packet filters, virus filters, and spam detectors. The traditional network perimeter is disappearing and with it, the value of traditional defences. To enable granular access control, create specific roles for each user. Periodically pentest the security implementation, use different companies instead of always the same. Signals can include the user’s role, physical location, device state, value of the service they are accessing and risk of the action they are preforming. If this principle is not implemented, any procedural, personnel, physical and technical controls in place will not remain effective when responding to changes in the service and to threat and technology developments. This type of DMZ exists deeper in the network structure and creates a logical separation to prevent intruders from exploiting the trust given to communications that make it through the firewall. Rationale: Security design should protect against services use of other layers or applications (also SAAS services). Statement: Compile with all warnings enabled, in pedantic mode, and use one or more modern static source code analyzers. Compiler directives There should not be more #ifdef directives in a code base than there are headerfiles. 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